David S. Kozin Posted April 29, 2011 Report Share Posted April 29, 2011 The Historical Development of the Current Etiology Cooper (1955); Elkes, Elkes, & Mayer-Gross (1955); and Sandison, Spencer, & Whitelaw, (1954) published the first accounts of negative consequences from hallucinogen use. Cooper (1995) described one of patient's aftereffects as “Illusions and misinterpretations.” A patient stating seeing a white unicorn from a plant against a shed in the dark.” Additional descriptions include time distortion or feeling of unreality, which are consistent with often comorbid or hallucinogen-induced depersonalization and/or derealization. Horowitz (1969) described HPPD as a syndrome with specific characteristics and coined the term Flashbacks. The publication included theories to explain HPPD. Horowitz stated listed on theory of HPPD as a “heightened sensitivity to perceptual stimuli as a result of an inability to suppress irrelevant sensory inputs.” Furthermore, Horowitz mentioned the possibility that other sensory modalities are involved, but identified the visual system as most affected. The descriptions from his 1969 paper can be compared with the modern responses given above [note, I include quotes from HPPDonline above]: “halo effects, blurred vision, shimmering, or reduplications of percepts, distortion of spatial places, and changes in coloration.” These are hallmark symptoms with HPPD . Furthermore, Horowitz acknowledged that physical stress and marijuana ares two experiences as precipitants of the symptoms with delayed onset or increase severity by stating, “Marihuana [sic], secobarbital (Seconal), physical fatigue, or stress may produce a state in which flashbacks from previous LSD ‘trips’ are more likely to recur.” Horowitz identifies key features that remain as a foundations for the diagnosis today: common symptoms, the possible delayed onset, cannabis as a trigger, and proposes the first neurobiological explanation involving the “disinhibition” of the process of image formation in the brain. Admittedly this theory is general and intuitive; however, it is contrasted with theories of HPPD such as the view of HPPD as role-playing in individuals who have higher prevalence of fantasy (as suggested by (Horowitz, 1969) and 160 more pages. Working on fixing these types of sections. Can't wait to publish it. It will be in hard bound copies with a total of 300? pages including my research, the symptom description and stories of HPPD individuals in the back. David Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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