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Article on Robert Sapolsky, stress, the brain, etc.

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I stumbled upon this article browsing the forums recently. I'm not sure it's original source or who wrote it since it was reposted but the information is fascinating from an HPPD perspective. Robert Sapolsky's work is highly relevant to HPPD sufferers considering he's a neuro-endocrinologist who specializes in stress. He just came out with a new book and has published groundbreaking works on how stress affects the body and brain. If you want an introduction to his work I'd recommend Stress: Portrait of a Killer, which I've posted below, just above the article I copied and pasted:

To fully understand the complexities of the stress response and the effects of long term hyperactivation of the body’s coping mechanisms, I recommend Stanford University professor Robert M. Sapolsky’s book Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition (2004). I am just wild about this book and all of Sapolsky’s writing. 

Robert Sapolsky says that in the last few years science has found that rather than the stress-response hormones and transmitters “running out” during the exhaustion phase, it is the stress response itself that is damaging. The body spends so many resources on stress adaptation that it causes the economy of the body to become bankrupt. 

Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus triggers ACTH release from the pituitary which causes the adrenals to release epinephrine and norepinephrine (also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline) and glucocorticocoids. The glucocorticoids or stress steroids (eg. cortisol), are secreted by the adrenal glands to mobilize the body against danger, attack and invasion. Robert Sapolsky was among the first to document the damaging effects of the glucocorticoids on the neurons in the hippocampus. In particular people who have endured horrible stress, such as war veterans and victims of prolonged childhood sexual abuse, are often fated to suffer permanent damage to the hippocampus, with consequent memory loss. Sapolsky also found that the stress hormones produced during depression attack the hippocampus; and that massive long-term depression almost certainly caused permanent brain damage in the form of memory loss.

Studies in rats by Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University found that after only two weeks of exposure to stress-induced higher corticosterone levels, dendrites began to shrivel up, thereby impairing memory and brain function. When stress is reduced the dendrites in the rats grow back. If this rodent study translates into humans, logically we can aid in this regrowth by avoiding caffeine, taking adaptogens like ginseng plus supplements to lower cortisol, by improving diet and getting plenty of exercise. 

Sapolsky's research group has also shown that the events that damage brain cells, such as stroke, seizure and aging, are more likely to kill those cells if stress hormones (glucocorticoids) are present. They also found that in the hippocampus, glucocorticoids inhibit glucose transport in the neurons thereby disrupting energy storage in the cells. The hormones probably don't directly kill the brain cells they just endanger them, rendering the nerve cell vulnerable and with less energy to combat events that cause a neuron to die. 

In peripheral tissue the two main products in inflammation Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes are inhibited by the action of Glucocorticoids hence they are anti-inflammatory. But in the brain under some circumstances Glucocorticoids can produce pro-inflammatory effects that compromise the ability of neurons to survive neurological insults such as stroke or the waves of synchronized hyperexcitation known as seizure. Prolonged seizures and epilepsy can thus cause considerable neuron loss. 

Stress increases the risk of becoming ill by lowering our resistance to disease. The magnitude and frequency of the stress responses determines the strength of the immune system, and our immune strength in turn determines what diseases we get and our ability to resist them. Some of the effects of chronic stress on include digestive complaints, high blood pressure, heart disease, sexual dysfunction, and neurological damage, memory impairment and the cessation of growth in seriously stressed children. Also growth and repair are inhibited during fight-flight and stress, as the body puts a hold on long term building projects to cater to more immediate needs. Excessive glucocorticoid levels result in the inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption (both of which can lead to osteoporosis), delayed wound healing, muscle weakness and increased risk of infection. 

Recent studies show that older adults with continuously high levels of cortisol performed worse on memory tests than older adults with moderate or low cortisol levels. In addition, older adults with long-term exposure to high cortisol levels also had, on average, a 14% smaller hippocampus. Another study with children from different socioeconomic backgrounds showed that children from a lower socioeconomic status had higher average stress hormone levels and that stress was an important determinant of the quality of brain function.

Since stress turns down the parasympathetic nervous system, this can interfere with digesting and assimilating the nutrients needed for rebuilding. Plus with the rest and recovery side of the nervous system repressed this can negatively impact the stress relief gained through sexual fulfillment and relationship. It is interesting that social stressors tend to have more immunosuppressing power than non-relational stressors and that friendship and emotional support may help ameliorate the damaging effects of stress on brain cells. Other psychological factors that tend to reduce stress chemistry include: a sense of control and predictability, a sense of known direction, outlets for frustration and aggression, and the sense that things will improve (hope and optimism).

The origins of the name “glucocorticoid” derives from the fact that these hormones are involved in glucose metabolism. In the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in the blood. The cortisol produced during stress reduces insulin production and halts the storage of glucose in order to mobilize energy for escaping danger. Cortisol, glucagons, epinephrine and norepinephrine cause triglycerides to be broken down in fat cells, resulting in higher levels of free fatty acids and glycerol in the blood. Glucocorticoids block the transport of nutrients into fat cells and make the fat cells less sensitive to insulin. The extra glucose and fatty acids in the blood congest the kidneys, produce atherosclerotic plaques and increase the glycation of proteins.

Glycation is the result of a sugar molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are an important source of the free radicals that lead to irreversible reactions in cell organelles and cell metabolism. Ageing, and thus life span, correlate with the generation of free radicals and AGEs mediated by the counteraction of our antioxidant defense system. Most chronic diseases are also associated with free radicals and AGEs. Thus the consequences of chronic raised blood sugar include glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, glycation damage to the protein structures in the body and these factors ultimately contribute to diseases like diabetes and cancer. Glucocorticoids are known to accelerate cancer growth.

There is a transient enhancement of the immune system for the first 30 minutes after a physical or psychological stressor, however with prolonged or extreme exposure to glucocorticoids the immune system is suppressed. If the “tiger doesn’t go away” this chronic over-activation of the immune system can lead to autoimmune diseases. These days we tend to be “on” all the time, even when we are sleeping, and this is not good for the health. Glucocorticoids cause shrinkage of the thymus gland and halts the formation of new lymphocyctes in the thymus. Glucocorticoids also suppress the cell-mediated immunity by inhibiting genes that code for the cytokines, thereby inhibiting the release of immune messages like interleukins and interferons which makes the lymphocytes less responsive.

Prolonged stress and ageing are associated with decreased hormone production, especially reduced secretion of human Growth Hormone (HGH) from the anterior pituitary. Stress and ageing are also associated with lower levels of free choline in the blood and tissues. Generalized muscle wasting occurs as muscles loose both protein (mass) and tone, and body fat levels increase, undesirable mood and affect changes, abnormal sleep patterns, loss of energy and stamina, and decreased cellular and immune functions. Concomitantly, both quality of life and lifespan decrease, sexual desire and potency diminish.

The Robert Sapolsky video “Stress, Neurodegeneration and Individual Differences” on videogoogle.com provides outstanding information on the effects of stress. In this video Sapolsky says there is permanent damage to the hippocampus from sustained stress hormones from various things like chronic depression, child abuse and war. Some damage is repairable, for at first just dendrites on the neurons atrophy and these can grow back again if the stressors are removed and stress hormone levels drop. Though we can build up practices and coping mechanisms that make us more functional, this damage to our memory/learning ability makes us less than we otherwise might have been. Since relational and psychological stressors are the most pervasive, to prevent damaging our brains we need to build the kind of thought systems, personalities, coping habits and adaptive skills which reduce our general glucocorticoid levels—thus preserving our learning and memory ability.

To repeat this very important point, it is the accumulated exposure to the stress hormones glucocorticoids that makes neurons more vulnerable to further damage. This is due to the creation of an energy challenge to those neurons, because glucocorticoids block 70-80% of glucose uptake by fat cells in the body periphery in order to liberate sugar stores for fight-flight. While in the hippocampus glucocorticoids inhibit 20-25% of glucose uptake by neurons, and it is this that creates an energetic crisis and drop in ATP levels, which then endangers neurons to damage or death by other insults such as seizures, hypoglycemia, hypoxia and oxidation by free radicals. 

The hippocampus is the most glutamate using part of the brain. This is so because learning and memory are so vital to survival that this excitoneurotransmitter is used liberally in this area. The energy crisis to the neurons created by excess glucocorticoids means the neuron doesn’t have adequate energy for reuptake of calcium and glutamate. It is through this lack of cleanup that these chemicals hang around longer; thus increasing calcium release into the cytoplasm, which produces enzymes that increase free radical damage to the cytoskeletal membrane of the cell, thereby bringing about cell death or apoptosis. To protect themselves from excitotoxin damage the neurons produce adenosine, GABA, taurine, heat shock proteins, antioxidants, feedback inhibition of Ca++ flow and increase glucose and lactate uptake to improve energy levels of the neurons. However glucocorticoids interfere with these defense mechanisms also. 


The medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to inhibit the fear prompting amygdala. Chronically high levels of stress hormones called glucocorticoids can reduce medial prefrontal cortex activity thereby making us more prone to overt amygdala influence; therefore more emotionally raw and blown around by circumstance and our inner condition. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) functions as a "switchboard operator" by receiving constant cognitive and emotional information from distant brain regions, making sense of them in relation to past experience, and directing the information to other regions to execute responses. The mPFC regulates stress responses through interaction with the hypothalamus, which controls levels of stress hormones (a.k.a., glucocorticoids), and activates the fight-or-flight response that helps in adaptation to mentally and physically challenging or threatening situations. 

Brain scans reveal functional impairment and shrinkage of mPFC in depression and PTSD, and animal studies show that chronic stress causes nerve-cell atrophy and synapse loss. In research on the effect of stress on rats Jason Radley P.h.D of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies found that nearly one-third of all axospinous synapses on apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC are lost following repeated stress. He found that stress results in a significant (16%) decrease in apical dendritic spine density and a 20% loss of dendritic length in the same neurons. And this may be important cellular features of stress-related psychiatric disorders where the PFC is functionally impaired.

For our growth, development, health and fulfillment we need stimulation rich environments...what this stimulation amounts to would differ between us monkeys...some would like more toys, others more playmates, others would want a bigger playground etc...Big Fun is an attempt to generate more stimulating conditions in which growth is possible. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives, revealing the huge importance of our everyday experiences in making our brains what they are. Boredom makes us stupid--the richness of our environment affects our brain structure. With a more stimulating environment our brains develop denser neuron growth and increase the amount of certain synaptic proteins that the brain uses to relay messages between neurons.

When it comes to brainpower they say you either use it or lose it. Fred Gage of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies studied the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory and skills and found that activation of NMDA receptors affects the survival of brain cells. This study in mice suggests that the survival of newly formed adult brain cells depends on the amount of input they receive, via NMDA receptors - proteins that sit on the surface of brain cells and help them communicate with each other, suggesting that communication is essential for neuron survival. http://www.newscient...-job-to-do.html

This suggests that our interpersonal world, (how well we bond and communicate with others, whether we are repressed and if we easily forgive or hold grudges,) might also have a parallel in how well our own neurons communicate with each other and thereby impact the lifespan of those neurons. This resilience of neurons that communicate well with each other might also be key in how we each respond differently to stress and PTSD. Brains that are repressed or weak in self-communication might be more vulnerable to the effects of glucocorticoids and to neuron damage in general.

Laughter Therapy--Laughter could be the universal panacea for many of the problems associated with kundalini including depression, panic, maldigestion, lowered immunity, hypertension, convulsions and dissociation. In Mind Wide Open (126) Steven Johnson says that laughter increases activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region of the brain that plays an important role in reward, pleasure, addiction, music appreciation and love chemistry. The endorphin system is involved in the pleasure of laughter and it is thought that laughter is involved in a biochemical reward system for social connection. Laughter also improves health by suppressing stress hormones and elevating antibodies and immunity.

The principal neurotransmitter produced by 95% of neurons in the nucleus accumbens is Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA); the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. These neurons are also the main projection or output neurons of the nucleus accumbens, which project to the ventral pallidum and then the thalamus, which projects in turn to the prefrontal cortex. Major inputs to the nucleus accumbens include the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic input is thought to modulate the activity of neurons within the nucleus accumbens. Almost every highly addictive drug, including cocaine and amphetamine, causes a several-fold increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.


The following is a hypothetical assessment of the possible physiological repercussions from a full-on awakening during which no pro-adaptation measures were undertaken. This might also be the profile of someone undergoing an awakening in a hostile environment, or who was excessively stressed by events or relationships during an awakening. In arriving at a profile of the exhaustion phase many of factors that constitute advanced catabolic wasting and stress physiology are pretty obvious. However the exact neurotransmitter imbalances will need laboratory research specific to kundalini. So here is a brief first attempt at the burnout symptoms. The advanced symptoms of maladaptation to kundalini and stress would look something like this:

-Oxidation Damage--Free radical increase due to hypermetabolism, breakdown of stress and other hormones, increased glyconeogenesis, apoptosis and lysosome activity and immune system activation. Oxidation damage increases when there is a lack of free-water during dehydration. Oxidation causes down-regulation of receptors, damages membranes, interferes with energy production and reduces antioxidant power. Oxidation damage will also interfere with energy generation by interfering with the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

-Hypoadrenalism-- There are about 40 stress hormones, the most important being cortisol, adrenalin and DHEA. As cortisol levels increase there is a decline in the anabolic adrenal hormone DHEA (a precursor of testosterone) which increases depression and leads to increased vulnerability to the catabolic effects of cortisol. Testosterone is needed for new bone growth, muscle repair, and healthy cardiovascular function. Exhaustion of adrenal glands from excessive stress means an eventual drop in glucocorticoids. In the advanced stages hypoadrenalism even means a deficiency cortisol and contributes to anemia and hypoglycemia. Signs of adrenal exhaustion can be as diverse as fatigue, nervousness, anxiety, severe PMS, depression, brain fog, carbohydrate cravings, allergies, muscular pain and tenderness, joint pain and irritable bowel syndrome.

-Hypogonadotrophism--Stress hormones cortisol and aldosterone (sodium retaining hormone) block receptor sites for testosterone in the amygdala producing loss of motivation and responsiveness. During stress gonadotrophins cause a reduction in sex hormone production; there is a tendency toward estrogen dominance, which causes thyroxine-binding making it unavailable. As receptors become less sensitive to feedback inhibition luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates less sex steroids from the gonads. Reduced sensitivity of prolactin receptors, raise prolactin levels, lowering levels of growth hormone and testosterone. Progesterone is a primary precursor in the biosynthesis of the adrenal corticosteroids, lack of progesterone interferes with the production of the stress-combating hormones, Progesterone deficiency results in bone loss. Progesterone stabilizes glucose levels, creates well-being and enhances libido. Progesterone is essential for the healthy development of the myelin sheath which protects the nerve cells. Low progesterone levels lead to recurring aches and pains.

-Hypothyroidism-- During stress the thyroid gland is stimulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to secrete thyroxine to increase metabolism; leading to exhaustion of the thyroid, down-regulation of receptors, contributing to fatigue. Thyroid hormones increase the sensitivity of the body to adrenaline. Food allergens/leaky gut and chronic stress can contribute to hypothyroidism; estrogen dominance (a deficiency of progesterone relative to estrogen) in women impairs thyroid function. Low levels of tyrosine can also cause subnormal levels of thyroid hormone, a well-known cause of depression.

-Blood Sugar Imbalance--Cortisol and adrenaline increase blood sugar; while low blood sugar increase stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone. Excess insulin and leptin in circulation along with high blood sugar levels and oxidized down-regulated insulin/leptin receptors. Alternates with low blood sugar--Hypoglycemia is often caused by or related to hormone imbalances (estrogen dominance, adrenal insufficiency, excess androgens in women, low human growth hormone & hypothyroidism).

-Neurotransmitter Imbalance--Shift toward parasympathetic nervous system due to exhaustion. Receptor down-regulation, burnout of receptors for both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Possible deficiencies through over use of Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA, Glutamine, glycine, PEA and Norepinephrine. Phenylalanine becomes depleted in chronic stress and burnout thus lowering tyrosine, dopamine, noreadrenaline and adrenaline, which are derived from it. Serotonin deficiency leads to runaway levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in depression, anxiety, panic attacks, cravings, irritability, aggressiveness and phobias. Dopamine deficiency is linked with depression, burn-out, lack of motivation, and decreased libido (or sexual desire) also cravings. Norepinephrine deficiency leads to insatiable hunger, inability to focus or concentrate, exhaustion and carbohydrate cravings. Epinephrine deficiency is seen in cases of adrenal exhaustion.

-Amino Acid Imbalance--During the awakening the body will have harvested the amino acids it needed for hormones and neurotransmitters from muscle and other tissue. Possible reduced levels of tryptophan, cysteine, glycine, taurine, tyrosine. Exhaustion of L-carnitine at mitochondrian-(lysine and methionine). Because they largely fuel the fire of kundalini, I assume that glutamine, aspartate and arginine would have run short by the exhaustion phase. Loss of creatine for energy production and endurance. Chronic fatigue syndrome has been linked to excessively high levels of alanine while having low levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine.

-Nutrient Imbalance--Loss from over-demand of zinc, selenium, magnesium, molybdenum, chromium, iodine, iron, omega 3 &6, Antioxidants, potassium and sodium, and loss of calcium from the bones. Reduced choline/niacin and other B Vitamins: B-6, B-12, thiamin and folate. Loss of alkaline mineral reserves might make body more acid.

-Immune System Imbalance--General inhibition of immunity due to HPA Axis hyperactivation and burn out of hormones. Excess cortisol can cause programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the thymus leading to thymic involution, thus suppressing the immune system. ACTH inhibits synthesis of lymphocytes especially in response to proteins, while it amplifies the proliferation of B cells--raising levels of phagocytic neutrophils. Reduced number of natural killer cells and monocytes and inhibited ingestion capacity of phagocytic immune cells. 

-Raised Cholesterol--Increased water demand during kundalini so body raises cholesterol levels to protect membranes and vessels from high free radicals and dehydration. Cholesterol blocks receptor sensitivity. Blood lipid levels could rise due to utilization of fat stores. Stress hormones raise cholesterol levels.

-Mitochondrial Disruption--In extreme versions of the exhaustion phase the catabolic condition involves mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidation, which may be a cause of fat loss (lipoatrophy), as well as neuropathy, myopathy, pancreatitis, fatty liver, white blood cell decreases, platelet decreases, anemia, and lactic acidosis. The consequent energy shortage in the tissues can cause muscle weakness, fatigue and problems in the heart, kidneys, eyes and endocrine system. Leading to a buildup of toxic intermediates that can be responsible for liver problems, muscle cramps, brain dysfunction or even greater mitochondrial damage. Build up of metabolic intermediates and toxic by-products prolong the duration of the exhaustion phase by slowing repair and interfering with energy generation.

-Disrupted Digestion--Kundalini may aggrevate loss of glutamate in gastrointestinal lining, disrupt intestinal bacteria consequently leading to strain on liver. Excess stimulation of serotonergic and histaminergic neurology in enteric brain. The excessive consumption of carbohydrates depletes the carbohydrate digesting enzyme amylase, thereby increasing histamine problems such as allergies and sinus headaches. Stress has also been implicated in reducing the amount of blood flow to the stomach wall. Probiotics and digestive enzymes like papaya and bromelian need to be taken for the duration of the exhaustion phase.

-Kidney and Liver Exhaustion-- The liver is the main organ for breaking down hormones after they have served their messenger function. If insulin is not broken down quickly enough, hypoglycemia results as the still circulating insulin continues to lower blood sugar. If the liver does not metabolize estrogen properly, PMS will result. Failure to dispose of adrenaline may lead to chronic irritability and temper explosions. With kundalini one can assume increased work done by kidneys and liver in dealing with disrupted digestion, cell breakdown/recycling and the metabolic fallout from extreme chemistry. Adrenal exhaustion is kidney exhaustion. Liver exhaustion reduces interferon, detoxification, and creates fatigue, depression, dark circles under the eyes, nausea and hypersensitivity to foods and chemicals. The characteristic amino acid pattern observed in chronic liver failure is high aromatic (phenylalanine, histadine, tyrosine) and low branched chain amino acid (leucine, isoleucine and valine) levels; this is considered to be consequent to increased muscle protein catabolism. The main catabolic stimulus has been attributed to hyperglucagonemia and to a reduced insulin/glucagon ratio. Research suggests an anticatabolic effect of branched chain amino acids on muscle protein turnover and suggest that factors other than insulin and glucagon may be responsible for the characteristic plasma amino acid pattern present in chronic liver failure. Eye bags and swollen red eyelids means very congested kidneys.

-Hypothalamus and Endocrine Necrosis--Possible reduction in the size of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenals, thymus, thyroid, spleen and pancreas from high levels of corticosteroids (cortisol) produced by perpetual stress. The atrophied dendrites and organs will grow back once the exhaustion phase is over, hence the need to lessen the depth and length of the burnout period and speed recovery.

-Ammonia Toxicity--Excess ammonia production could become a problem after prolonged catabolic breakdown as muscle protein is burned during the peak. This would lead to the exhaustion of normal metabolic resources for the safe and efficient detoxification of ammonia. Also reduced immunity coupled with the disruption of both digestion and a healthy intestinal bacteria spectrum may lead to ammonia toxicity. When the liver and kidneys are weakened from overuse, ammonia in the blood might become a problem. Excess serum ammonia could contribute to various symptoms including seizure, convulsion, head pressure, hypoxia, nausea, vertigo, confusion and fatigue produced by a reduction in energy generation.

-Inflammation--Obesity, unclear thinking, dissociation and degenerative disease are all caused by the combination of four things: stress, pollution, lack of exercise and cooked food. If you adopt the habits of Western cooked food culture, you will suffer the same fate. All "degenerative" diseases one way or another are caused by cellular inflammation due to generations of cooking and processing of food. But you do not have to go 100% raw to start seeing the benefits. You will lose weight, think clearly and have more faith as soon as you start moving in the raw direction. A great introduction to the inflammation theory of ageing and disease can be found in The Wrinkle Cure: Unlock the power of Cosmeceuticals for Supple, Youthful Skin by Nicholas Perricone, M.D. www.nvperriconemd.com/

-Flat Affect--Physical and emotional numbness or flatness from continual high endorphin production and reduced sensitivity of hypothalamic and amygdala response. Weak adrenals means the amygdala with its impulses for desire and fear is less impactful, thus reducing motivation. Excess opiate production is associated with reduced immunity and ironically with depression.

-Depression--From exhaustion of tryptophan, dopamine, norephinephrine. Chronic hypertonal HPA axis/stress response and burning out the catecholamines, adrenals, cortisol and thyroid, and reducing growth and sex hormones thereby generating depression. Receptors are down regulated during depression and immune system suppressed. Depression can also result from loss of dendrites and receptors in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, eg: hypothalamic and hippocampus involution.


I suspect that all parts of the Neem tree might be one of the best panaceas for kundalini/stress induced conditions--both in preventing damage and imbalance and for achieving higher homeostasis. Since neem can be put in almost all the following categories I wanted to mention it separately. Neem: India's Miraculous Healing Plant by Ellen Norten. Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems by Noel Vietmeyer. Inflammation is not treated separately here because the antioxidant and immune sections basically cover the same remedies. 

-Attitude--The most important nutrients for accepting and transcending the exhaustion phase are "love and respect" and an attitude of gratitude. That is both receiving the love and respect of others, and giving love and respect to yourself and others. The most important path for reinstating anabolic and potent growth chemistry is to follow your passions, to play and go on adventures. If you are not actively engaged in projects and activities that you love, then it is nigh impossible to flip your bodymind out of the die-back and depression, and the recovery period will be that much longer. Laughter, humor and play increase new neural connections, develop denser neuron growth and increase dopamine and GABA levels; thereby increasing creativity, relaxation and alertness.

-Integrating Energy--To deal with the intense energies, you might try to do some Toning...choose a sound such as Huuu, Ommm or a vowel sound and tone it out to the full length of your breath...do this for 1/2 an hour or more when your energies are uncomfortable and it will help integrate you. Also during any acute activity or exhaustion it is good to lie with your spine on the grass, and to do this for 1/2 hour a day is good for maintaining your energy levels and countering the fatigue of grounding that occurs. I suggest you find either a martial arts teacher, Qi gong master or someone to help guide you if things get rough, you might need to use their body as a "template" for higher-integration...it happens through "presence." 

-Reducing Stress Hormones-- The adrenal cortical hormones suppress inflammatory processes, healing processes and the immune system. They also convert glycogen stores into glucose and elevate blood sugar levels--to counteract this catabolism chromium and Corosolic acid from Banaba leaf improves glucose entry into cells. Consume raw-complex/low glycemic carbohydrates and high quality protein to potentially deflect the ill effects of elevated cortisol. Acetyl-L-carnitine and phosphatidylserine are used to reduce cortisol production and repair receptor sensitivity in the hypothalamus. Adaptogens are herbs help coping with stress by restoring hypothalamic cortisol receptor sensitivity. Adaptogenic Herbs: Ashwaghanda root, Basil, California poppy, Echinopanax elatum, Devil's claw, Dong quai, Codonopsis, Goldenseal, Gotu kola, Green tea, Hawthorn extract, Hops Flowers, Kava kava, Licorice, Magnolia bark, Manchurian Thorn Tree extract, Rhodiola rosea, Schizandra, Suma, Valerian. Perhaps the most well known adaptogen is ginseng of which there are three types: Asian (Panax ginseng), which produces the strongest stimulation, American (Panax quinquefolium), which soothes and Siberian (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for stamina. The Aralia family includes Ginseng, Echinopanax, Aralia, and Eleutherococcus. One of the best ways to control elevated cortisol levels is to keep well hydrated for dehydration causes cortisol levels to increase. 

-Hypoadrenalism--Prolonged stress exhausts the adrenal glands and other glands and organ systems resulting in Hypoadrenia. Hypothyroidism, reactive hypoglycemia and depressed immunity are often associated with this condition as well. To build up your adrenals to recover from fatigue take 1000 mg four times per day of buffered vitamin C with plenty of water between meals. The adrenals are the site of the highest concentration of vitamin C in the body. Pantothenic acid or B5, vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 work synergistically to nourish and strengthen the adrenals. Herbs to rebuild the adrenals are: Ashwagandha, Chaparral, Ginseng, Licorice, Ma huang and Suma. Licorice root slows down the deactivation of cortisol and aldosterone extending the life of these hormones in the body, so may be best to avoid a lot of licorice root during the peak phase. 

-Stopping Coffee-- Caffeine makes the body think is it under stress, which raises the cortisol level, raises the insulin level, and causes carbohydrates to be deposited as fat. Coffee can severely weaken the kidneys and adrenals, acidify the digestive system and the blood, mess with the nervous system and increase the risk of pancreas cancer. Caffeine should be generally avoided during spiritual emergency for it leads to the exhaustion of the energy reserves of cells by conversion of ATP to AMP and similarly aspartate converts the energy molecule GTP to into its "ash" GMP. When reducing your caffeine intake it would be helpful to take the following herbs: Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Skullcap, Chamomile, Valerian, Yerba mate and St. John's Wort. Feverfew plus L-tyrosine and high doses of Vitamin C will reduce symptoms when withdrawing from any addictive substance whether it be food and food allergens, drugs, coffee or nicotine. A caffeine antidote is: 1000 mg vitamin C, B complex, 50 mg Zinc, 400 mg Calcium and 500 mg Magnesium.

-Stabilizing Blood Sugar--Chromium, manganese and B vitamins are important in blood sugar regulation. Alpha lipoic acid has been shown to increase insulin receptor sensitivity. Brewers yeast, Alfalfa, whole grains, liver and Spirulina are good sources of these nutrients. In hypoglycemia there is too much insulin and too little sugar in the blood stream. The amino acid Cysteine can inactivate insulin thus allowing the blood sugar to rise. Take 6 parts vitamin C, 1 part vitamin B1 and 1 part Cysteine. To reduce sugar cravings, raise blood sugar levels and cure mental fatigue take: Glutamine, vitamins E and Folic acid, Magnesium, Zinc, B6, and vitamin C, flaxseed oil. Niacin (B3) elevates and stabilizes blood sugar levels. Foods: Onions, Oats, Barely, Sunflower seeds, Cashews, Olive oil, Celery, Spinach, Carrot, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Blueberries, Cranberry and radishes. Golden seal lowers blood sugar and is a source of natural insulin. Banaba leaf contains a compound called corosolic acid that improves glucose entry into cells and can reduce body fat levels. Glucomannan derived from the Konjac plant helps control blood sugar levels. Herbs for stabilizing blood sugar are: Burdock root, Dandelion, Devils club, Fenugreek, Garlic, Goats Rue, Ginseng, Graviola, Horseradish, Olive Leaf, Mulberry leaves, Mugwort, Neem, Nettles, Sage, Skullcap, Huckleberry Leaf. Suma regenerates the pancreas.

-Improving Sex Hormones--Pollen is rich in aspartic acid, an amino acid involved in rejuvenation of the sex glands. Forskolin is a herb that increases Cyclic AMP, which is essential to synthesize and regulate thyroid hormones, growth hormone, cortisol, DHEA, testosterone, melatonin and other hormones. Fish oil (Omega 3) increases NO, L-Arginine, Ornithine, Histadine, Choline, B-5, B-6, Niacin, zinc, selenium, magnesium. DHEA, the most abundant hormone and precursor to many other hormones seems to balance the effects of cortisol by improving the body's ability to cope with stress. It can boost energy levels, strengthen immune function, improve memory, and reduce body fat. DHEA acts as a "mood elevator," preventing depression and protecting important neurons in the brain. Dopamine the libido driver is synthesized from L-Dopa (Mucina pruviens) and its amino acid precursor Tyrosine. Herbs that provide anabolic steroid precursors are: Ashwagandha. Black Cohosh. Blessed Thistle, Blue Cohosh, Chaste Berry, Damiana, Dodder Seed, Dong quai, FoTi, Ginkgo, Ginseng, Gotu kola, Horny Goat Weed, Huang Qi, Long Jack, Licorice root, Maca, Mucuna pruriens, Muira puama, Raspberry leaf, Sarsaparilla, Saw palmetto, Tribulus, Wild Oat, Wild Yam, Yucca.

-Increasing Anabolism--Increasing Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is essential to turn the body around to an anabolic building state. Arginine stimulates the pituitary into producing Growth Hormone which increases the size of the Thymus gland thus increasing T cells and B cells. Immunity improves along with tissue regeneration, muscle toning, wound healing and cancer inhibition. Growth Hormone Release (GHR) inhibits the formation of fat and mobilizes existing stores; it also increases the tensile strength of structural protein, collagen, preventing sagging skin. Take Arginine, Ornithine, Tyrosine, B12, B6, Vitamin C. Also Creatine, Tryptophan. Choline from DMAE and Alpha-GPA increases HGH. Other anabolic agents include Royal Jelly, Viraloid, extracted from Wild Yam, is a new super anabolic/anti-catabolic from Australia that causes massive protein synthesis and muscle build up by increasing testosterone levels and "opening up" more testosterone receptor sites. Cell proliferants: Aloe, Basil, Comfrey, Elderberries, Mullein, Papaya, Pollen, Raspberry, Sage, Slippery elm, Watercress, Yellow dock.

-Preventing Dehydration--Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) which is released during dehydration is a major hypothalamic stimulator of anterior pituitary stress hormones (corticotrophs). The consumption of water should be half the body weight in pounds in ounces of water per day, ie: around 5 pints, or 2.5 quarts, 10 cups together with ½ tsp of unrefined seasalt. Most fruit and vegetables contain large amounts of water (up to 96%) and therefore represent an excellent source of both fuel and water. Cooking reduces the water content of food.

-Reducing Cholesterol--Choline in combination with another B vitamin Inositol form Lecithin. Lecithin plays an essential role in the body's fat chemistry; it dissolves cholesterol and keeps the arteries from clogging. Lecithin is the main component of liver cells and helps to eliminate fats from the liver. Lecithin is known to purge the cells of LDL. Herbs for reducing cholesterol are Alfalfa, Cayenne, Garlic, Ginseng, turmeric, Cayenne, Aloe Vera, Saffron, Dandelion, True Blue Skullcap, Thyme, Black Cohash, Gaurana, Yellow Dock, Burdock Root, Echinacea Root, Red Clover blooms, Grapeseed oil.

-Receptor Recovery-- Acetyl-l-Carnitine, Chromium picolinate, Vanadyl Sulfate, Tryptophan, (5-HTP), Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil, L-Carnitine+Alpha Lipoic Acid. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and Phosphatidylserine increases sensitivity of prolactin and cortisol receptors resulting in lower levels of circulating hormone. Calcium-2 AEP protects cell membranes, receptors and aids neurotransmission. Herbs: Amber powder (Succinic acid), Black Cohosh, Cinnamon Extract, Chaste Berry, Forskolin, Ginkgo biloba, Goat's rue, Rooibos tea, Tribulus. Blueberries, Broccoli, Grape, Spinach, Strawberries. Ginkgo biloba both increases the amount of neural transmission and increases the number of receptor sites for neural transmission.

-Nerve Regrowth-- Regular exercise releases endogenous opioids, enhances serotonin function, stimulates nerve growth factors, promotes cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and leads to a livelier, better-oxygenated brain. Dendrites, the tentacle-like branches of the nerve cells, create connections between neurons and transmit information from one to another--socialization and varied sensory experience grow more dendrites in the cerebral cortex. The brain makes the most neural connections when it is actively involved in learning, therefore, learning should be multisensory and interactive. 

In one study, using 1% Ashitaba dry powders, a 20% increase of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) concentration was noted after only four days! Olive leaf, Flaxseed oil and Grapeseed oil helps nerve cells via supporting the cell membranes and myelin sheaths. The best nerve regrowth agent found in one study was Milk Thistle Extract; it was found to grow more neurites (branches of nerve cells necessary for their normal function and that aid in the regeneration of new cells), but it also helped nerve cells alive longer. Possible nerve growth enhancing effects have been found with Ashwaganha, Ginger, Ginseng, Grapeseed and Vinpocetine. The following are herbs that have multiple reports of potential benefits in neuron protection and repair: Curry, Fish oil especially DHA, Green Tea, Licorice, Forsythia, Lonicera, Sage, Tumeric. Tumeric decreased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. A flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria (Scute) is a powerful anti-inflammatory with potent neuroprotecting properties. It diminished inflammation in glial cells by reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Scute also offered protection from damage by protein kinase C, by oxygen/glucose deprivation and the excitotoxic injury by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA).

-Rebuilding Neurotransmitters-- Neurotransmitters (all 37 of them except one), are made from amino acids. Neurotransmitters are produced on-site in the neurons of the brain from their amino acid building blocks some of which can readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Sufficient amino acids plus vitamin and mineral cofactors must be present to produce adequate neurotransmitter levels. Symptoms for deficiency of the B vitamin Choline include kidney failure, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Choline is a building block for Acetylcholine which is the parasympathetic nervous systems primary neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is necessary for muscle control and tone as well as memory, long-term planning, mental focus, mood elevation, sexual activity and other functions. Pantothenic acid, B5 is needed for acetylcholine production. The protective coating for nerves, the myelin sheath is mostly lecithin (which is composed of Choline and another B vitamin Inositol). Exercise leads to more efficient use of insulin, thus reducing insulin resistance and decreasing the amount of food which is stored as fat. When the cells process nutrients better, they make neurotransmitters better.

The Edge Effect, Achieve Total health and Longevity with the Balanced Brain Advantage, Eric Braverman M.D.

-Nootropics For Increased Cognition--By the time the exhaustion phase comes around you might need to take some nootropics to increase mental performance. Mind enhancing nutrients: Huperzine A, NADH, DMAE, Choline, Pyroglutamic acid, Ribonucleic acid, Piracetum, Vinpocetine, Hyperzine, Fish oil, Flaxseed oil, Vitamin C, Phenylalanine, Taurine, Glutamine, Acetyl L-carnitine, Phosphatidylserine. The shift to long-term memory is mediated by a protein molecule called CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein); Forskolin is a herb that increases Cyclic AMP. Theanine from green tea helps the brain produce alpha waves, which are associated with states of alert relaxation. 

Chinese Shen (spirit) herbs and Nootropic Herbs: Agaricus Mushroom, Albizzia bark, Ashwagandha, Calamus root, Celastrus paniculatus seeds, Dong quai (Angelica root), Ginkgo Biloba, Gotu Kola, Gynostemma, Kava Kava Root, Succinum resin (Hu Po), Spirit Poria Mushroom, Rehmannia Root, Reishi, Rhodiola rosa, Schizandra, Siberian Ginseng, St. John's Wort, Sutherlandia frutescens, Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri), Wild Asparagus root, Zizyphus jujuba fruit. Polygala root is known as the "Will Strengthener" in Chinese medicine. A very interesting Chinese therapy is Dragon Bone (Dinosaur) which among other things treats epilepsy, madness, manic running about, binding qi below the heart, inability to catch one's breath, and various kinds of spasms. Wild Oat (Avena Sativa) is a nerve tonic that helps to reduce the symptoms of withdrawal from opium and morphine addiction, so it might be useful to deal with excess endorphin levels.

-Improving Thyroid and Energy--Creatine is involved in the energy source for muscle contraction. When the body's energy molecule ATP gives up one of is phosphate molecules as work is being done it is creatine phosphate that in turn gives its phosphate molecule to convert the ADP back to ATP again, so more work can be done. Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) has mitochondrial membrane normalizing effects. Kelp for the thyroid. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome represents a similar profile to kundalini exhaustion. CFS suffers have found relief using certain supplements, including coenzyme Q10, omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil), omega-6 fatty acids (Evening primrose oil), L-lysine, L-Carnitine, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6. Wheatgrass juice gives the most immediate pick-me-up. Spirulina gives substantial energy and is a complete food. Kelp provides the iodine to fire up the thyroid and metabolism. Green tea or Yerba mate is good for energy also and it is not over stimulating like coffee.Radishes normalize the production of T4 in the thyroid alleviating both hyper and hypo thyroidism.

-Recovery From Effects of Fat and Muscle Burning--Since fat and protein burning (gluconeogenesis) goes up during the massive energy demand of kundalini glutamine and aspartate might eventually become deficient. Glutamine protects muscle mass by providing an alternative fuel source and has a stimulatory effect on gluconeogenesis. Aspartate is non-essential in mammals, and might serve as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is also a metabolite in the urea cycle, and participates in gluconeogenesis. L-Carnitine feeds the heart oxygen and energy and protects the body from ketosis, thus reduces muscle soreness after exercise. Ketosis is the toxic waste products from fat mobilization, which raises blood acidity and causes the body to lose vital alkaline minerals such as potassium, calcium and magnesium. Kelp and wheatgrass juice are good ways of remineralizing. Creatine may be key to turning the body toward anabolic building metabolism for it increases protein synthesis, especially within muscle fibers, it is mostly found in meats, fish and chicken. Creatine plays a very powerful role in energy metabolism, for ATP is replenished from creatine phosphate (CP). Our bodies make Creatine from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine. Creatine plays a vital role in the release of energy in the muscles of humans and other animals. Creatine also plays an important role in nerve cell function, and also buffers lactic acid production, thereby reducing muscle fatigue. 

-Antioxidant Reserves--In the absence of adequate antioxidants lactate levels may rise indicating mitochondrial damage. By keeping up antioxidants, green foods and superfoods, during an awakening you can reduce some or all of the depression from the final exhaustion stage. Phytochemicals from the colourful parts of plants are vitally important to protect our cell membranes (lycopene, lutein, veggie carotenoids). Vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, Selenium, Zinc, Bioflavonoids, Cysteine & Methionine (sulphur-containing amino acids), CoQ10, Glutathione, Melatonin, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Antioxidant herbs include: Artichoke, Astragalus, Basil, Bilberry, Chaparral, Ginger, Green tea, Hawthorne, Garlic, Ginkgo, Golden seal, Graviola, Ligustrum, Milk thistle-Silymarin, Olive leaf, Pycnogenols-Pine bark/Grape seed, Raw Propolis, Rosemary, Schizandra, Shitake mushrooms, Spirulina, St. John's Wort, Turmeric Wolf Berry. 

-Stimulating the Immune System--The above antioxidants aid the immune system. Arginine enhances the immune system, and stimulates the size and activity of the thymus gland. Herbs: Aloe, Astragalus, Barberry, Basil, Boneset, Cat's Claw, Cayenne, Chamomile, Chaparral, Echinacea, Elecampane, Fennel, Garlic, Ginger, Goldenseal, Grapeseed extract, Graviola, Licorice, Ligustrum, Lobelia, Marshmallow, Mistletoe, Mullein, Neem, Olive leaf, Pau D Arco, Pinebark extract, Plantain, Raw Propolis. Reishi mushroom, Sarsaparilla, Shitake mushroom, St John's Wort, Suma, Tea Tree Oil, Thyme.

-Digestive System Recovery--To improve on weakened digestion papaya or bromelain enzymes are taken with each meal. Bromelain is an enzyme found in raw pineapple which can digest up to 900 times its weight in fat. Combine equal parts of kelp powder, spirulina and slippery elm, put in 000 capsulate and take 3 a day. Kelp and Dulse are a rich source of vitamins A, B, C and contain 50 minerals including a large amount of Iodine. It improves digestion by stimulating the digestive secretions in the stomach and pancreas and providing minerals for intestinal bacteria. To rebuild the function and tone of the digestive tract after a kundalini awakening--Herbs: Alfalfa, Aloe vera extract, Atractylodes, Black cohosh, Black Walnut, Cabbage, Caraway seed, Catnip, Cardamon seed, Clove, Cranesbill root, Dandelion, Devils claw, Fennel, Fenugreek, Ginger root, Goats Rue, Green citrus peel, Licorice root, Lovage, Magnolia bark, Oregon grape, Peppermint, Poria cocs, White Oak Bark, Wild yam root.

Herbs that have mucilage properties that soothe the digestive tract include: Borage, Buckwheat, Couch grass, Chickweed, Comfrey, Chamomile, Flax seed ground, Marshmallow, Mullen, Slippery elm. 

Bitters stimulate the endocrine glands, digestive juices, liver pancreas and peristalsis. Bitter herbs are: Dandelion leaf, Blessed Thistle, Chamomile, Chicory, Gentian, Golden seal, Mugwort, Neem and Yarrow.

-Kidney Support--Weakness of the kidneys can cause the accumulation and retention of fluids. Foods that support the kidneys include watermelon, buckwheat, onions, beans, grapes, all berries, seaweed, watercress, green magma and barely. Beta carotene, B complex and Vitamin E. Warming herbs reduce mucus, revive kidney yang and stimulate immunity, they are good for people who suffer cold and retain water in their tissues. Herbs: Anise seed, Bayberry, Buchu, Cayenne, Celery seeds, Cinnamon, Chilli, Cloves, Coriander, Cornsilk, Damiana, Dandelion leaf, False Unicorn root, Fennel, Garlic, Ginkgo nuts, Ginger, Golden seal, Horseradish, Juniper berries, Parsley, Plantain, Prickly ash, Sassafras, Stinging nettle, Rehmannia, Rosehips, Sorrel, Marshmallow, Mugwort, Mustard, Uva ursi, Watercress, Wild carrot, Wild yam, Yarrow,

-Liver Support--During awakening Lipid peroxidization in the liver especially must be guarded against with protectors like glutathione and sulfur amino acids (Cysteine) from cruciferous vegetables for sulfation and detoxification: especially broccoli sprouts. L-cysteine supports liver detoxification, it is a precursor to the body's main antioxidant, Glutathione which helps prevent the peroxidization of fats and counters toxins, drugs and carcinogens. Always take it with twice as much vitamin C as Cysteine. The major component of liver cells is lecithin. Additional antioxidant nutrients such as Choline, Alpha lipoic acid, Beta carotene, Vitamins C & E, B Complex, Selenium, Zinc, Beta Carotene, hydergine. The liver stores 90-95% of our Vitamin A and zinc is required for mobilization of Vitamin A stores from the liver; take brewers yeast, seafood, pumpkin seeds and kelp for zinc. The amino acids Glycine, L-carntine, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), SAMe, Glutamine, Methionine, Taurine and aspartate (aspartic acid). Herbs: Artemisia, Angelica root, Barberry, Birch leaves, Black cohosh root, Burdock root, Carrot, Chamomile, Chlorophyll, Corydalis, Dandelion root, Dong quai, Fennel, Garlic Ginger, Gentian root, Goldenrod, Grapeseed, Graviola, Horsetail herb, Parsley, Plantain, Licorice, Mandrake root, Milk thistle, Mugwort, Pinebark, Red beet root, Rehmannia, Reishi mushroom, Schizandra berries, Tumeric, Uva ursi, Wolf berries, Yarrow, Yellow dock root.

-Estrogen Balance--Help The Liver Metabolize Estrogen--The cabbage family (cruciferous) vegetables especially broccoli, brussel sprouts, and antioxidants like Rosemary and Alpha lipoic acid, help to bind the estrogens in a safe pathway so they can be safely removed from the body. Other substances that prevent genotoxic effects of estrogen metabolities are: , B Vitamins, Vitamins A, C, E, Probiotics, phytoestrogen rich foods such as flaxseed and soy. The bran layer of beans, seeds and grains. Support for the preferred pathways of estrogen metabolism and detoxification include: isoflavones, indole-3-carbinol, B vitamins, magnesium, limonene, calcium D-glucarate, and antioxidants. Herbs: Alfalfa, Anise, Black cohosh, Cramp Bark, Dong Quai, Fennel, Fenugreek, Green tea, Kudzu, Licorice root, Red Clover, Rosemary, Saw Palmetto, Sarsaparilla, Tumeric, Wild yam.

-Rebuilding Amino Acids--In times of wasting health crisis like kundalini burn out amino acids help rebuild muscles, produce neurotransmitters and hormones, improve the immune system, and can help restore vitality. Most healthy adults need between 45 and 60 grams of complete protein per day, which should account for 10 to 15 percent of their daily caloric intake. Sources of complete proteins include dairy products, eggs, fish, fowl and meats. Nuts, seeds, and grains are generally low in lysine and relatively high in tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids. These are best combined with legumes which are good sources of lysine and poor sources of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids. Super amino foods include hemp seed, spirulina. The live enzymes in alfalfa sprouts are able to cross the gastrointestinal tract in their intact form. Live sprouts contain antioxidents, anticarcinogens, live enzymes, electromagnetic energies, a high zeta potential, high levels of vitamins, nucleic acids, antibiotics and beneficial plant hormones especially useful are sprouted chick peas, lentil, Mung bean, alfalfa and clover sprouts. Myopathy or atrophy of muscles may need Glutamine, Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine to rebuild. Rebuilding connective tissue may need L-Proline and L-Lysine. The essential amino acid L-lysine regulates the ovaries, mammary and pineal glands and helps fights viruses. It works with Vitamin C/bioflavinoids to build collagen for new connective tissue and bones. It is necessary for all amino acid assimilation. Also, Lysine deficiency can interfere with Carnitine synthesis and remember that L-carnitine is needed to burn fat as energy. L-Carnitine is a "heart tonic."The amino acids Cysteine and Methionine for allergies. To rebuild growth hormone levels the amino acids Ornithine and Arginine are required. Glycine is required for healing tissues. Histidine and Arginine may be necessary to restore libido during the exhaustion phase. An amino acid supplement might be advisable during exhaustion to help turn the body toward rebuilding itself, such as a formula like Super Amino 4800 from bodybuilding.com

-Ammonia Detoxification--Glutamate, Arginine, Ornithine, Citrulline, Taurine, Tryptophan, Glycine, Creatine, Choline, B Complex, Lethicin, Fish oil, DMAE, DHA, Calcium D-Glucarate, D-Ribose, Ca-2AEP, Acetyl-L-carnitine, L-carnitine, SAMe, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), Cysteine. Selenium, Magnesium, Potassium and Sulfur foods; Alpha lipoic acid. Bentonite clay and Psyllium. Acidophilus, Probiotics. Lactulose. Payapa enzymes and Bromelian powder. Spirulina-Kelp-Slippery elm in capsules. Plus supplements for blood sugar regulation, nerves, liver, kidney, candida, stress, antioxidants and estrogen detoxification. Herbs: Ashwagandha root, Cordyceps, Danshen (red sage root), Devil's claw, Dong quai, Grapeseed extract, Graviola, Green tea, Neem leaf and oil, Wheatgrass juice, Yucca root, Larch arabinogalactan.

-Overcoming Depression--Depression involves burnout of the noradrenaline adrenergic receptors and serotonergic deficits. Depressed patients retain salt and fluid probably due to extra secretion of the stress hormone aldosterone (sodium retaining hormone)--progesterone reduces bloating and depression. 5 http (L-tryptophan), DL-Phenylalanine, B Complex, B-12, Choline/DMAE, omega-3, vinpocetine, DHEA, S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAMe). 

Edited by K.B.Fante
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"and that massive long-term depression almost certainly caused permanent brain damage in the form of memory loss."

There has to be a better way than telling people they have permanent brain damage and will be depressed forever.

Neuroplasticity. Adaptogens. Stem cell and gene therapy. People need hope that this bullshit isnt permanent.

Otherwise we might as well just off ourselves.

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