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Seeing as there are different forms of Choline supplementation, I thought it would be handy to keep it all in one place.
Anyways, I haven't really gone too far on this one. Just made this as a stub for future research.


In controlled trials with subjects aged up to 65 years, GPC improvednumber of mental processing measures, including reaction time which is related to acetylcholine nerve pathways, and visual cortex performance related to dopaminergic pathways.

Visual evoked potential (VEP) is a physiologic response linked to cognitive performance. Sicurella and colleagues measured VEP in 5 subjects of ages 59-83 who presented clinically with chronic cerebral vasculopathy. Baseline measurements were taken, then 3 grams of GPC was given i.m. and the measurements repeated over a total 5.5 hours. GPC increased VEP amplitude in all 5 patients, by more than 60% on average.

source [PDF]



These data show that gestational choline supplementation produces permanent improvement in a deficit (sensory gating) associated with schizophrenia and may have implications for human prenatal nutrition.

I'll do some more digging on Choline tomorrow.

Goood morning!


Increased latency and reduced amplitude of visual evoked potentials (VEP), frequently encountered in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma, suggest slowed neural conduction in the visual pathways. An improvement in VEP latency and amplitude has been reported following repeated intramuscular injections of citicoline, a neuroprotective drug. Our aim was to find whether citicoline given orally would produce a similar effect.


62% of the eyes showed a response to the treatment, with VEP latency reduced from 123.5 (3.9 SEM) ms to 111.9 (1.9 SEM) ms (P=0.0008), and VEP amplitude increased from 6.56 (1.39 SEM) to 7.88 (1.16 SEM) (P=0.04).


Citicoline given orally improves visual evoked potentials in some glaucoma patients.



So far, CDP-Choline seems to shorten VEP latency, hence could have an adverse effect in HPPD. However, one should also consider the fact that P values are not given (if I'm correct), and that in HPPD the P2 latency was measured. Most studies focus on P50 or P100 latencies (or so I could imagine). Thus, it would be unwise to prematurely claim that any substance would not work, or have adverse effects in HPPD. I'll leave further interpretation for the reader, for my knowledge on VEP's is limited.


Ten patients with migraine developed persistent positive visual phenomena lasting months to years. The complaints were similar in their simplicity and involvement of the entire visual field and usually consisted of diffuse small particles such as TV static, snow, lines of ants, dots, and rain. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations were normal, and EEGs were normal in eight of eight patients tested. MRI was normal in all patients except one who had nonspecific biparietal white matter lesions and another with a small venous angioma. Treatment of this unusual complication of migraine was unsuccessful.
Carbamazepine, diazepam, flunarizine, nimodipine, and citicoline were unhelpful.


N.B.The latter statement only showed up in the scholar search preview.


For me, this is where the story ends. Citicoline was found unhelpful in ameliorating persistent positive visual phenoma such as static, snow, lines, dots and rain. That doesn't sound all to promising. Note however that the examinations were normal, including EEG patterns. This could be important for further implications, for the pathogenesis of these symptoms could differ.

I'll look up Choline studies later, for now I'd rather focus on more promising stuff.

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