Jump to content

Emerging trends in GHB withdrawl syndrome, detoxification


Recommended Posts

File Name: Emerging trends in GHB withdrawl syndrome, detoxification

File Submitter: StateOfRegret

File Submitted: 07 Mar 2014

File Category: Publications



This article details the experience of two physicians in different metropolitan areas who have treated a number of patients who have gone through what appears to be withdrawal after the repeated use of GHB. They describe a syndrome that has similarities to both alcohol withdrawal and benzodiazepine (or other sedative hypnotic) withdrawal.



Click here to download this file

  • Upvote 2
Link to post

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.

Guest
Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Similar Content

    • By MadDoc
      I've seen some threads on this forum decompose into insults and shouting matches.  We all have opinions, perspectives, experiences, and information we've obtained from various sources.  If someone posts something you don't agree with, pisses you off,  or seems like misinformation, please reply in a constructive and courteous manner.  Before you post, think about what you might say if you were talking to the person face to face, and don't forget to be kind.  We're all struggling with a difficult disorder.  Remember, we all have the goal of being well.  Let's help each other get there.
      Thank you.
    • By Deleted account
      >Visits the doctors about HPPD, doctor doesn't know anything about HPPD
      >Tells doctor about persisting drug-induced hallucinations and panic attacks, gets referred to a drug and alcohol service
      >Makes it clear that there is no history of addiction or continued use, gets referred to psychiatrists
      >Open to suggestion, trying not to be classed as a drug-seeker, I accept the anti-psychotic prescription Seroquel
      >Takes Seroquel, makes HPPD worse, notifies doctors of this 
      >Is offered SSRI anti-depressants for panic attacks, rejected them
      >Prescribed antipsychotic Olanzepine (Zyprexa), which doesn't do anything for HPPD, and Diazepam (Valium) for panic attacks, which also does nothing
      >Moved to a mental health facility so that doctors can sort medication out
      >Psychiatrists conclude that panic disorder can fix itself and that the HPPD visuals are psychotic hallucinations
      >Prescribes Aripiprazole (Abilify), and took away the Diazepam, which made HPPD worse, and induced anxiety and hypertension (high blood pressure)
      Psychiatrists insist that benzo's are unsafe and should only be used short term due to risk of addiction, despite no history of addiction and the thousands of milligrams worth of any benzodiazepine it would take to actually be fatal. 
      Big fuck you to every single doctor out there who hasn't done their research and has treated every HPPD patient like this. I have already explained to them that the most effective treatment for HPPD include anti-convulsants, but they do not listen. Instead they want to chuck as many anti-psychotics and anti-depressants at me as possible, hoping that I will come across one that will eventually kill me. These doctors are not here to help, they are here to kill and deny effective treatment. Even if addiction were a problem (which is not if you do not abuse medicaiton),  I'd rather be addicted to a drug than have HPPD for the rest of my life. Now I will proceed to seek medication illegally because this medical system has failed me. 
       
       
       
    • By prince
      Hello, sorry for my english, iam from the Netherlands.
      I have HPPD for about 5 years now, i get it from strong dutch XTC.
      It is getting better now so i want to try some drugs again.
      My question is, is it possible to take some GHB or cocaine when we still have HPPD?
      I know it sounds stupid to take drugs again but there must by something wat we can take.
       
      Thanks.
       
       
       
       
    • By StateOfRegret
      Has anyone looked into using Huperzine A as an adjunct to HPPD treatment?
      It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (and as such prevents the breakdown of acethylcholine, thus increasing the available acetylcholine). Just as importantly, it is an NMDA antagonist, a class of drugs which have been shown to reduce benzodiazepine dependence, including tolerance and withdrawal symptom severity, something I'm sure would benefit many HPPD'ers.
      Note that some NMDA antagonists are well-known dissociatives (such as Ketamine, PCP and DXM), but from what I can gather, it is entirely possible to reap the benefits of NMDA antagonism without experiencing psychotropic effects (please bear in mindt that the three examples mentioned are not purely NMDA antagonists, but have more complex pharmacodynamics, with affinities for several different receptor systems which may all contribute to their unwanted psychotropic effects).
      I've collected a few articles on the effect of NMDA antagonists on benzodiazepine dependence, and highlighted some bits pertaining to NMDA antagonist treatment of benzodiazepine dependence in blue. I've also highlighted a few sentences pertaining to treatment of benzodiazepine dependence with AMPA antagonists in red - another area worth investigating further.
      Effect of NMDA antagonists on rapid tolerance to benzodiazepines
      We have reexamined the effect of NMDA antagonists [(+)MK-801 and ketamine] on rapid tolerance to chlordiazepoxide. (+)MK-801 and ketamine blocked the development of rapid tolerance to chlordiazepoxide, but this effect was dependent on the dose ratio of the NMDA antagonist to that of the benzodiazepine used to produce rapid tolerance. Furthermore, NMDA antagonists blocked both learned and unlearned tolerance to chlordiazepoxide. It appears that in addition to impairment of memory and learning, NMDA antagonists may also influence some other mechanism involved in the production of drug-tolerance.
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8971413
       
      The NMDA receptor competitive antagonist CPP modulates benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation
      Benzodiazepine discontinuation is characterized by a syndrome of increased activity and reduced seizure threshold that is similar to effects mediated by the glutamatergic system. To elucidate the involvement of the glutamatergic system in benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation, we administered lorazepam, the NMDA antagonist CPP, and the combination of these compounds either concomitantly or consecutively to mice via osmotic pumps and evaluated pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold, open-field activity, and benzodiazepine receptor binding during and after chronic administration. Animals receiving lorazepam alone developed partial tolerance at 7 days and complete tolerance at 14 days to the anticonvulsant effects of lorazepam. This effect was partly attenuated by CPP coadministration with lorazepam. This combination produced only partial tolerance. A reduction in seizure threshold was observed 4 days after discontinuation of lorazepam alone. This effect was abolished by coadministration of CPP with lorazepam and by CPP administration during the withdrawal period. Benzodiazepine binding in most structures examined was significantly reduced at 14 days during chronic lorazepam administration (versus 1 day), and coadministration of CPP did not alter this decrement. After lorazepam discontinuation, binding was increased at 4 and 7 days versus chronically treated animals and versus vehicle within the cerebral cortex. This effect was abolished by coadministration of CPP as well as by CPP administration during the lorazepam withdrawal period. These data support the involvement of the glutamatergic system in benzodiazepine tolerance and discontinuation.
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9399331
      Diazepam dependence prevented by glutamate antagonists
      Long-term treatment leads to tolerance to and dependence on benzodiazepines. Abrupt termination of benzodiazepine administration triggers the expression of signs of dependence. Mice withdrawn from chronic treatment with diazepam showed a time-related evolution of anxiety, muscle rigidity, and seizures between days 4 and 21 after treatment discontinuation. A period between withdrawal days 1 and 3 was symptom-free. Surprisingly, during this "silent phase" the susceptibility of mice to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (ATPA) and kainate seizures and the magnitude of monosynaptic reflexes mediated by non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mechanisms were enhanced. In apparent contrast, the "active phase", between withdrawal days 4 and 21, was characterized by increased susceptibility to NMDA seizures and enhanced magnitude of polysynaptic reflexes, which are NMDA dependent. Treatment of mice with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) antagonists 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466) or 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline but not with the NMDA antagonist 3-[(+/-)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP) during the silent phase prevented signs of dependence. In contrast, treatment with CPP but not with GYKI 52466 during the active phase prevented the symptoms. The development of tolerance to and dependence on diazepam was prevented by concurrent treatment of mice with CPP but was not prevented by GYKI 52466. These data indicate that NMDA-dependent mechanisms contribute to the development of tolerance to diazepam and to the expression of signs of dependence in mice after termination of long-term treatment with diazepam. Nevertheless, the non-NMDA-mediated silent phase is essential for triggering the symptoms. Therefore, AMPA antagonists may offer a therapeutic approach for preventing dependence on benzodiazepines that is an alternative to NMDA antagonism.
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8341715
      If anyone is interested, I'd be more than willing to upload the full texts of the mentioned articles. Also, speculation (as to mechanisms and whatnot) is most welcome! :-)
    • By ipadgirl
      hey found out had been taking a benzo for six months. dont like it at all. went off it have a story but to make it short was off it for four days went back on it then seen doctor three days later told him i wanted weanned. it is oxazepam 15mg now as of august 28 i am taking 10mg for two weeks then 5mg for two weeks then none so thank god in one month the benzo will be unused by me. however my body is reacting to having been off of it and now not having the dose i was so used to. I am glad i found this place to get some support thanks for being here.
×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use.